El nacimiento de la tragedia PDF ì El nacimiento

El nacimiento de la tragedia This book helps me understand why I don t like Socrates his generalization about rationality and virtue is too optimistic, unartistic, and will negating In one word, boring Rationality itself can never make life worth living Disillusion, semblance, errors, deceptions, irrational impulses, all of which Socrates negate, are inseparable from life, they are what life ultimately rests on What can theoretical knowledge possibly lead to, other than the killing of action, or the nihilistic revelati This book helps me understand why I don t like Socrates his generalization about rationality and virtue is too optimistic, unartistic, and will negating In one word, boring Rationality itself can never make life worth living Disillusion, semblance, errors, deceptions, irrational impulses, all of which Socrates negate, are inseparable from life, they are what life ultimately rests on What can theoretical knowledge possibly lead to, other than the killing of action, or the nihilistic revelation that it makessense to die than live What makes life worth living Nietzsche s answer is tragedy, the unity of Apolline semblance and Dionysiac intoxication, the unity of Apolline individuality and Dionysiac non individual will, the unity of the true essence of the world and the necessary illusion that makes it tolerable to us The Birth of Tragedy is a strong critic of Socratism and Western culture following from that German Romanticism at its zenith Another 10% book for me I think I understood about 10% of what Nietzsche was trying to say so here is my 10% review the dichotomy between A pollonian rational and D ionysian irrational impulses is a constant tug of war that seems to go on for the soul of a nation indeed this is the singular impulse that must be addressed if one is to talk of creativity and the Primordial Unity that underlines all such endeavors Nietzsche then turns his focus to Greek tragedy to flesh out both Another 10% book for me I think I understood about 10% of what Nietzsche was trying to say so here is my 10% review the dichotomy between A pollonian rational and D ionysian irrational impulses is a constant tug of war that seems to go on for the soul of a nation indeed this is the singular impulse that must be addressed if one is to talk of creativity and the Primordial Unity that underlines all such endeavors Nietzsche then turns his focus to Greek tragedy to flesh out both A and D as concepts that help to define spiritual maps a nation will follow I am going to steer clear of the Greek playwrights and his analysis of the Socratic Dialectic sorry, but 10% is all I can offer Nietzsche talks in abstract ways and I find it very difficult to access his words and ideas, and even harder to actually agree with them or sympathise with his stance As such, I ve always found this book a little odd I read it years ago for university, but I recently picked it up again with the hope of appreciating it a littlenow that I m older andwidely read It didn t make any difference Perhaps it s this work or perhaps me and Nietzsche just don t get on, either way I will have Nietzsche talks in abstract ways and I find it very difficult to access his words and ideas, and even harder to actually agree with them or sympathise with his stance As such, I ve always found this book a little odd I read it years ago for university, but I recently picked it up again with the hope of appreciating it a littlenow that I m older andwidely read It didn t make any difference Perhaps it s this work or perhaps me and Nietzsche just don t get on, either way I will have to readof his work to find out Here though, Nietzsche argues that Ancient Greek drama had the potential to transcend history and become relevant in a modern society He argues that the cultural revival of tragedy was bound up with the music of Richard Wagner as a sort of muse for modern forms of art His ideas are centred on two complementary forces the Apollonian and the Dionysian When these two forms meet the highest art is produced The Apollonian represents the traditional Hellenic image of tranquillity, harmony and jolliness The Dionysian force represents hidden depths, ecstasy, disturbing realities and orgy Both are lesser components of a greater whole Nietzsche also argues that the suffering of Dionysus is a long founded tradition in Greek Tragedy, as it comprised some of its earliest forms Therefore, Dionysus was the first stage hero and he can be produced again in amodern way These artistic traditions can return So there we have it and I am a little conflicted I see the elements he discusses within classic literature Sophocles Oedipus the King and Euripides The Bacchae are perhaps the best examples I can think of They are masterpieces in the realms of drama yet, they are also products of their time To Nietzsche they are the epitomes of high art, though in declaring them so he drastically undervalues all subsequent works by great authors who do not display a balance of the forces he argues for because there are certainly great things that do not fit his parameters So I found this quite tiresome to read and the arguments quite restricting Hopefully, I will takefrom Beyond Good and Evil. A few weeks ago, I finished Marx s Critique of Hegel s Philosophy of Right It strikes me now that that book and this one are similar, in that they shed light on the two thinkers as young men In Marx s Critique, we see the twenty something grappling with the tentacled beast of Hegel in The Birth of Tragedy, we see young Nietzsche taking his first bold step off the straight and narrow path of academia into his own world of thought Both books are, to put it delicately, young men s books bold, A few weeks ago, I finished Marx s Critique of Hegel s Philosophy of Right It strikes me now that that book and this one are similar, in that they shed light on the two thinkers as young men In Marx s Critique, we see the twenty something grappling with the tentacled beast of Hegel in The Birth of Tragedy, we see young Nietzsche taking his first bold step off the straight and narrow path of academia into his own world of thought Both books are, to put it delicately, young men s books bold, daring, reckless, overly ambitious, under researched, brimming over with impetuosity and life But the major difference between the two works is that Marx s Critique apart from its famous preface is quite boring while Nietzsche s debut has all the fire and fury you d expect from the mustachioed thinker As a piece of scholarship, this book is worthless Everyone told Nietzsche so immediately, and it s unnecessary to sayon the subject But as a piece of something, it s fantastic Here we get the rare treat of Nietzsche s excellent prose combined with a fairly straightforward argument But what, exactly, is the argument Although commonly discussed, I think that Nietzsche s division of Apollonian Dionysian is also commonly misrepresented For the sake of honesty, I should say I m merely parroting what I read in the Douglas Smith s introduction, bolstered by my own reading The main conflict Nietzsche identifies is not Apollonian vs Dionysian, but Apollonian Dionysian vs Socratism Apollonian art is representational, such as paintings, sculpture, novels, and epic poetry That s why Nietzsche calls Homer the ultimate Apollonian artist, because he paints a picture with words Now, mind you, these images don t have to be rational In fact, they often aren t Does anything about the Iliad or the Odyssey strike you as particularly rational In fact, one of the first examples Nietzsche uses as Apollonian imagery are dreams the ultimate in senselessness Dionysian art is not representational It is, rather, a pure manifestation of the will to live This is heavily influenced by Schopenhauer s philosophy Schopenhauer, building on Kant, thought that the world of the senses was but a visual manifestation of the primordial Will to Live which is Schopenhauer s interpretation of Kant s noumena Thus, since Apollonian art represents this world of the senses, it ends up being copy of a copy twice removed from the primordial will But music is a pure sensation, and therefore closer to the fundamental truth of reality So, for Nietzsche, the greatness of Greek Tragedy is that it combined these two aspects of art the representational and nonrepresentational The drama depicted on stage is Apollonian but the music of the Chorus is Dionysian It is the balance of myth and music, of words and will And therein lies the rub The death of tragedy comes with this fateful balance is disrupted And it is disrupted by rationality in the form of Euripides and Socrates Socrates s or Plato s way of thinking was opposed to both the Apollonian and the Dionysian His guiding light was reason, cold and pure Socrates s objection to Apollonian art is similar to Schopenhauer s it is a mere representation of the visual world, which itself is a mere manifestation of the Ideal Forms But music is equally abhorrent for Socrates, because it is irrational, and distracts the soul from philosophy In place of the Will to Live Socrates proposes the Will to Truth From then on, nonrepresentational art is not to be trusted, since it appeals to the senses, like wine or the lust for power The point of art becomes, instead, to manifest reason and truth rather than to represent the Will to Live Instead of the Apollonian world of dreams and myth we get the Socratic world of diagrams and dialectic.I m not sure why I took the trouble to summarize the book Maybe it s because I ve heard it incorrectly summarized so many times before or maybe it s because it s so darn interesting In any case, this is a marvelous little book, even if you think Nietzsche is both a bad scholar which he is and has dubious moral values which is arguable In the end, I think one of Nietzsche s main points, at any time in his life, was that aesthetics is perhapsimportant than either logic or ethics Logic tells you what is true ethics tell you what is right But aesthetics makes life worth living and who cares what s true or right if it isn t One can see how influential this was on Freud, whose entire system is a kind of internalized version of Schopenhauer s and Nietzsche s For Freud, the primal id read the will to live or the Dionysian is represented symbolically via dreams read the world of the senses or the Apollonian Friedrich Nietzsche s The Birth of Tragedy In Helen Morales introduction to Tim Whitmarsh s fine new translation ofLeucippe and Clitophon , by the Alexandrian Greek Achilles Tatius in the 2nd century CE, she mentions that Nietzsche condemned the ancient Greek novels as a final sign of the degeneration of Greek literary art I had forgotten all about that, so I thumbed throughDie Geburt der Trag dieto find what he said in context and was pul Friedrich Nietzsche s The Birth of Tragedy In Helen Morales introduction to Tim Whitmarsh s fine new translation ofLeucippe and Clitophon , by the Alexandrian Greek Achilles Tatius in the 2nd century CE, she mentions that Nietzsche condemned the ancient Greek novels as a final sign of the degeneration of Greek literary art I had forgotten all about that, so I thumbed throughDie Geburt der Trag dieto find what he said in context and was pulled into the book again by his wonderful prose style and my curiosity about what else I may have forgotten in the intervening time Of course, the thumbing turned into a re read Die Geburt der Trag die was Friedrich Nietzsche s 1844 1900 first book, though it transformed through a number of stages before it was published under this name first in 1872 It was modified twice , and I read it in its final form of 1886 This final version had a new preface entitled Versuch einer Selbstkritik Attempt at a Self Criticism , wherein Nietzsche distanced himself from the text by explaining how his young, romantic self, under the excitement and pressure of the Franco Prussian War of 1870 71, had undertaken a task beyond his inexperienced reach He calls the book poorly written, clumsy, embarrassing, overly enthusiastic and insufficiently argued, etc He even calls it here and there sweetened to the point of femininity In this preface Nietzsche also takes the opportunity to eloquently and forcefully restate his view that morality, particularly Christian morality, is anti life, that Christian teleology is life hating.In any case, Nietzsche had begun a very promising academic career at the University of Basel in Classical Philology, but this book killed it at once A few responses by academics were published which dismantled the book from the point of view of academic considerations he didn t take into account relevant literature and therefore misrepresented what was known this is quite relevant, for he attacked the science of philology itself , he confused dates and pushed certain poets works centuries before their time in order to make points, etc The next semester, students avoided his lectures He was finished But in this book Nietzsche first formulated in a tentative form some of the ideas which later became central to his thought, a body of thought which hardly had any place in academia, anyway So what is the book about Way too much, actually He begins by recalling the well known Apollonian Dionysian dichotomy very roughly speaking, reason and measure versus irrationality and intoxication ecstasy a favorite topic of Hermann Hesse and so many other romantic post romantic German authors Like the ancient Greeks, he also attributed dreams, viewed as prophesies and revelations, to the Apollonian side But it is the Dionysian side which breaks down all barriers between individuals and between man and nature, which, unlike the Apollonian side only permitting the awe full admiration of the gods in dreams actually permits one to feel like a god.In quick succession Nietzsche tells us that dreams are a higher state of existence than real life , that Homer was the first Apollonian artist and Archilochus because lyrical poet lyricist musician Dionysian the first Dionysian artist, that the existence of the lyrical poet is a big problem for the philosophy of art which he solves , etc., etc.Nietzsche arrives at the topic of the origin of the Greek tragedy, but instead of examining the surviving primary sources he argues against Schlegel, Schiller and other very secondary sources Distinguishing between the Apollonian rhapsody and the Dionysian dithyramb, Nietzsche repeats Aristotle s assertion that Greek tragedy originated in the dithyramb, and does so without mentioning Aristotle He goes on to assert that the original Greek tragedies united both the Apollonian and Dionysian within themselves In his own words Nach dieser Erkenntnis haben wir die griechische Trag die als den dionysischen Chor zu verstehen, der sich immer von neuem wieder in einer apollinischen Bilderwelt entladet According to this knowledge, we have to understand Greek tragedy as the Dionysian choir, which ever again anew discharges itself in an Apollonian world of images He goes on to explain why the dialogue in the plays is Apollonian and why all the tragic heroes were masks of Dionysus This original, pure tragedy soon degenerated into Attic comedy, which Nietzsche discusses next Nietzsche makes a notable assertion, which I oversimplify as follows As part of this degeneration, the pair Euripides Socrates introduced reason, as opposed to instinct, into the Greek theater This turning towards reason and against the old, unspoken connection to the Dionysian roots of Greek culture initiated and accelerated the decay of that culture He sketches how the birth of philosophy in Athens destroyed the original,authentic andvalid Greek culture And, certainly, when one considers how Plato treated all of the arts in his Republic, Nietzsche is not merely spinning fables here He continues, asserting that all of Western culture is overshadowed by the nefarious, optimistic, knowledge seeking, Apollonian degenerate Socrates and his followers Science is their love child and is only enabling greed and materialism and abstraction while destroying art and alienating mankind from its roots He calls for a revolution away from the Apollonian back to the Dionysian, and precisely this call he develops and intensifies in his later work We know in hindsight that some very nasty people took up this cry for instinct, roots and the transcendence of self and went to some very bad places with it I deny that this is in any way Nietzsche s responsibility or that such thinking must lead necessarily to such places On the contrary, such thinking can lead, for example, to Zen Buddhism.This book does not try to present a thesis and make a reasoned argument in support of it, complete with evidence of all kinds No, it is poetic and somewhat confused speculation and enthusiasm it is a piece of romantic literature, not philosophy or philology, though it makes one suggestive and interesting point, as mentioned earlier It is a beautifully expressed, extended essay in which the young Nietzsche shows us some of the things he is enthused about With that in mind, one can enjoy his youthful, undisciplined enthusiasm and fondly recall from one s earlier years a similar state of being Or, if one is young enough to be in that state of being, one can see a kindred spirit always a pleasant experience Before closing, I absolutely have to express my admiration for Nietzsche s prose he is the greatest prose stylist among the many German philosophers I have read He, eventhan that great prose stylist Plato, can sweep the reader along, can woo him into a state of willing acceptance, nay, enthusiasm for his views It is a pleasure to read his writings, even when, in the back of one s mind, one is often thinking I don t find this to be valid at all A cutting criticism from a man who thought masculinity was the measure of correct thought and emotion This criticism was leveled at his younger self I don t understand that remark as being negative either for Nietzsche or for academia This prefigures the mature Nietzsche s rejection of reason, as opposed to instinct and will.Note If you care to know what star rating I give this book, please see my blog at Nietzsche Years ago, all I knew about him was that overused quote that says Without music, life would be a mistake A couple of days ago, I found a funny picture that reminded of that.Ha Ok, maybe not funny ha ha If you speak SpanishAnyway The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche s first work I read it years ago the great Schopenhauer led me to him but I didn t remember much Since I want or wanted, I don t know to start with Thus spoke Zarathustra, I figured I should begin with something s Nietzsche Years ago, all I knew about him was that overused quote that says Without music, life would be a mistake A couple of days ago, I found a funny picture that reminded of that.Ha Ok, maybe not funny ha ha If you speak SpanishAnyway The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche s first work I read it years ago the great Schopenhauer led me to him but I didn t remember much Since I want or wanted, I don t know to start with Thus spoke Zarathustra, I figured I should begin with something shorter I was going to write simpler, but So, this book contains interesting thoughts about the dichotomy between the Apollonian and the Dionysian It was inspired by other ideas about two different things that conforms a constant struggle for us We have Apollo, god of the sun, reason, prophecy, healing, etc and Dionysus, god of wine and ecstasy When these two forces combine, they form art, tragedies They were last seen in Ancient Greece, because, according to Nietzsche, Euripides and the ones that followed deformed the concept of tragedy by using Socratic rationalism That excess of rationality, that loss of the Dionysian ingredient made tragedy the highest form of art disappear.This wasn t an easy read for me, but it was time well spent This complex, impressive man deservestime He had interesting points of view and a strong, passionate writing style I know it s going to take a while, you know, the reading and the actually understanding part However, this is an author whose outstanding work I need to get to know Before Nietzsche became unhinged he wrote this great work It took a toll on me after I read it because it was my introduction to Nietzsche and everything of his that I read afterwards was miscued it scattered my thought process for a few years The Joyful Wisdom, filled with remarkable poetry, was nearly like an acid trip Thank goodness young minds have the capacity of recovering.At its simplest, The Birth of Tragedy is a foundation for drama that which captures you and also moves you, wax Before Nietzsche became unhinged he wrote this great work It took a toll on me after I read it because it was my introduction to Nietzsche and everything of his that I read afterwards was miscued it scattered my thought process for a few years The Joyful Wisdom, filled with remarkable poetry, was nearly like an acid trip Thank goodness young minds have the capacity of recovering.At its simplest, The Birth of Tragedy is a foundation for drama that which captures you and also moves you, wax and wane of the mind, the up and down tugs on your heartstrings, or a punch to the relaxed gut It s one thing and still another, the back and forth of Apollo and Dionysis in a shared space and time each with their moments More complex, anddefinitive, andexemplary of Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy could be seen as the birth of Irony The Birth of Tragedy is by far the better written and useful of the three works by Friedrich Nietzsche that I have so far read Thus proving that when he is not angrily ranting about religion and morality, that Nietzsche does have important points to make about humanity That is not to say that Nietzsche does not have his own pointed comments about religion in this narrative argument that he creates,that these comments are superseded by the other arguments created by Nietzsche In the fore The Birth of Tragedy is by far the better written and useful of the three works by Friedrich Nietzsche that I have so far read Thus proving that when he is not angrily ranting about religion and morality, that Nietzsche does have important points to make about humanity That is not to say that Nietzsche does not have his own pointed comments about religion in this narrative argument that he creates,that these comments are superseded by the other arguments created by Nietzsche In the foreword to this edition, Nietzsche himself claims that he looks back with an academic disgust at his writing in this book He claims that it is the sickly, sweet and confident work of a much younger man, as if that is a clear problem with the work itself I myself perhaps because I am a younger man do not see this as an issue altogether and see the older Nietzsche as falling into the trap of becoming increasingly bitter, sceptical and closed minded Ironically everything that he accuses religion of fostering Personally, reading The Birth of Tragedy I note that it appears as if Nietzsche was headed down a path that hinted at accepting a kind of Christian, or other religious, spirituality and his older persona would not allow him to accept the direction of his conclusions Sad to say, Nietzsche throws the baby out with the bathwater when it comes to anything connected to religion.Speaking about this, it becomes clear that even from a younger age Nietzsche had this stumbling block when it came to religion In his introductory notes, Nietzsche states that he created this work on the basis that,or less, he wished to find a force that denoted that which was Anti Christ Or, according to him, denied a sense of Christian morality, that was amoral as life is amoral, and was also artistic The prompting of such words amounting to a blatant suggestion that Christianity or modern religion could not be artistic Which personally is an insulting suggestion and one which again causes me to wonder why Nietzsche hates the Christian ethic so very much Certainly, the modern day Christian artist may work within a box hence my ultimate respect for those people who attempt to break ground and boxes like Switchfoot or Skillet , but that is not enough to say that art cannot be made by Christians or by religious individuals It is, in fact, a denial of history to state as much.That aside, the argument made across the entirety of this volume is what I am really here to discuss And the argument that Nietzsche makes is that art focuses around two different forces He argues that life similarly focuses around two forces, like good or evil, order and chaos For art these two dichotomous forces are named by Nietzsche as the Appolonian and the Dionysian named after the two Greek gods of art Nietzsche classifies the Appolonian as representative of order and structure within art For instance he represents this as linked to sculpture The Dionysian is linked to the chaotic forces of art to music for example and the case is made that art flows from and between these two forces As it is also explained, the Appolonian is like dreaming and the Dionysian is like intoxication These are two states of consciousness that are linked together and yet are separate entities.In many ways this work is about the history of art and tragedy in particular as seen from the perspective of a history of the Greeks He discusses how tragedy and comedy are part of these Dionysian and Appolonian forces and that particularly the chaotic Dionysian is part of life and art itself However, Nietzsche also discusses a period of time in which tragedy became usurped by Socratic thinking In other words tragedy dies in an age of questions being asked and answered to provide rational solutions to that which may be irrational However, Nietzsche concludes by stating that we may enter a period whereby we see a rebirth of tragedy as an art form and as is accepted in life.As stated, there is plenty of literary value to be taken from this book I have an issue with Nietzsche s constant need to belittle religion, yet he d probably also have an issue with the fact that I bring up my views and beliefs due to their links to religion That said if there is one Nietzsche book I recommend it would be this Apollo Vs Dionysus A Darwinian DramaNietzsche never struck me as a real philosopher He was too much the story teller.This is probably his most a philosophical work But it is my favorite It was the most accessible to me and it was the most relevant of his works It helped me form my own convictions It was universal and yet not choke full of platitudes It was forceful but not descending into loud almost incomprehensible invectives you know which works I subtly allude to Birth of Tra Apollo Vs Dionysus A Darwinian DramaNietzsche never struck me as a real philosopher He was too much the story teller.This is probably his most a philosophical work But it is my favorite It was the most accessible to me and it was the most relevant of his works It helped me form my own convictions It was universal and yet not choke full of platitudes It was forceful but not descending into loud almost incomprehensible invectives you know which works I subtly allude to Birth of Tragedy was his first major work and to me in contradiction of the previous paragraph his most philosophical It seems to me to be the very soul of his philosophy that was then refined and reformed in the fire of his self imposed suffering The later philosophy is the Nietzschian one grand and too powerful to ignore But, this earlier core is, to me, the real beauty that livens all the later fury.Nietzsche, already in this, his first work ostensibly on the source of Greek tragedy , set Dionysus the god of vitality, ecstasy, thriving life, and of wine against Apollo the god of tranquillity, logic, and of contemplation According to Nietzsche, in Greek tragedy as in life, it is the unruly chorus who represented Dionysus and was a crying out of humanity the species itself Apollo, on the other hand, was represented by the human actors and expressed himself through the orderly dialogue Apollo was designed to be noticed the conscious story Dionysus was designed to be evoked the collective unconscious In this early core of Nietzschian philosophy, a philosophy of species vs individuals, of species evolution pitted against human vanity, Dionysus is the strength of the human race, of life itself vide Darwin but manifests only as mere background to any given human drama but still the source of all drama and is THE actual Drama Apollo, in contrast, is expressed in any given human drama composed or lived important and represented and thought about But, always about mere individuals, weak and mortal With this early work Nietzsche leapt into the depths and all the later developments was a climb back and proclamations of the reality of the Deep Or even attempts to reconcile with it It is tragic that it evolved into a darker, crueler negation clothed as an affirmation At least in this work, he adored and embraced the tragic sensibility which is the condition for man of adoration of life and of its cruel laws, despite all the weakness of the individual the real genesis of the Superman.Disclaimer 1 Writtenthan a year after the original reading and after only a cursory re reading re glancing Please trust the reviewer when he asserts that the work is powerful enough to stay fresh to review even after a year has passed.Disclaimer 2 Required Expansion of EssayThe Superman as The Buddha The Inevitable Evolution of Tragic Consciousness El nacimiento de la tragedia en el esp ritu de la m sica t tulo original en alem n Die Geburt der Trag die aus dem Geiste der Musik es un libro escrito entreypor el fil sofo alem n Friedrich NietzscheEste primer libro del fil sofo alem n Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche fue muy controvertido en su tiempo ya que no s lo expone de forma sistem tica el contenido de su estudio de los griegos, sino que tambi n empieza a moldear su filosof a, que ya estaba influida por los pensamientos de Schopenhauer y por la m sica y el concepto de la misma de Richard Wagner En sentido nietzscheano, este libro sirve entre otras para explicar la convivencia de la tragedia en la antigua Grecia concepto distinto al que tenemos hoy de tragedia , la afirmaci n rec proca de la vida y el eterno retorno


About the Author: Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philosopher of the late 19th century who challenged the foundations of Christianity and traditional morality He was interested in the enhancement of individual and cultural health, and believed in life, creativity, power, and the realities of the world we live in, rather than those situated in a world beyond Central to his philosophy is the idea of life affirmation, which involves an honest questioning of all doctrines that drain life s expansive energies, however socially prevalent those views might be Often referred to as one of the first existentialist philosophers along with S ren Kierkegaard 1813 1855 , Nietzsche s revitalizing philosophy has inspired leading figures in all walks of cultural life, including dancers, poets, novelists, painters, psychologists, philosophers, sociologists and social revolutionaries.From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy


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